What is the best DNA test for Asian ancestry?

What is the best DNA test for Asian ancestry?

What is the best DNA test for Asian ancestry?

If you’re wondering whether you have Asian roots you were unaware of, or already know that you have Asian ancestry but would like to learn more about the specific countries you descend from, taking an Asian ancestry DNA test is the best way to find out. The DNA testing market is more popular than ever, with researchers estimating that the sector is on track to reach $10.04 billion by 2022. However, with dozens of companies ready and waiting to examine your genetic composition, it’s important you choose a service that best caters to Asian genealogy in order to obtain the most accurate results. So, what is the best DNA test for Asian ancestry?

How do you know if you have Asian ancestry?

In reality, ‘Asian’ doesn’t refer to just one ethnicity, as the continent consists of 48 countries spanning five vast regions, and is populated by over 4.4 billion people. This means that identifying as Asian could mean being Chinese, Russian, Burmese, Indian, Sri Lankan or Afghan, along with a number of other possibilities.

DNA testing is by far the most reliable way to tell if you have Asian ancestry, and you don’t even need to leave the house to do so. Simply order a kit, provide a saliva sample or swab, then leave the rest to science. These are some of the different ways your DNA could be tested:

Genotyping/SNP testing

All major DNA testing companies perform genotyping or SNP testing — pronounced as ‘snips’. In this method of DNA testing, samples are compared to a reference genome to look for specific SNPs; variations in our genetic code which affect physical traits like skin color and hair texture. These are found in our autosomal DNA — the 22 out of 23 chromosome pairs unrelated to sex determination — and as certain variants are more likely to be present in some global populations than others, these can also be used as ancestry markers.

Such variations are able to reveal ancestry from about ten generations back. We inherit 50% of our autosomal DNA from each parent, but this is randomly allocated, and explains why we’re usually not identical to our siblings. This also means that siblings may inherit different ancestry markers from each other, so although an Asian ancestry DNA test could show that your brother is 17% Asian, you could be just 6%.

Maternal and Paternal Haplogroups

Maternal haplogroup testing examines mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) you’ve inherited from your mother. As this type of DNA rarely mutates, it means your direct maternal line could be traced back relatively far. Paternal haplogroup testing looks at the DNA inherited from your father, but this can only be conducted on those born genetically male. This focuses on the Y-chromosome (Y-DNA), the DNA strands passed down from father to son.

These tests have the potential to trace back anywhere from 20-100 generations, but as they are based on parental genetics, these can only trace two lines of a family tree and therefore exclude all other ancestry. For example, if your grandmother on your father’s side is Asian, you won’t share a maternal or paternal haplogroup.
h4. DNA Fingerprinting/STR Testing

STR stands for Short Tandem Repeats — the sections of your DNA that repeat themselves in a unique and identifiable pattern. Companies rarely rely on this method for testing, which is most commonly used to establish familial relationships, and in forensic DNA profiling. Though these markers can identify individuals and their relationships with others, the genetic information itself is not analyzed.

Some STRs do belong to global populations, so these tests may reveal a percentage of Asian ancestry, but would not be able to specify any particular country or region.

Which companies conduct DNA tests for Asian ancestry?

DNA databases are based on the genetic analyses of previous clients stored anonymously in the system, which are then used as a basis of comparison for new clients. Therefore, when taking a DNA test, you want to be able to compare your genetics against as many different Asian populations as possible. Here are three major companies with a significant number of Asian genetic signatures in their systems:

23andMe

23andMe added four more ancestral regions to its East Asia database in 2018, with researchers claiming that this provides the most detailed view to date for customers with East Asian ancestry. The company currently tests against numerous locations spanning 13 Asian regions including South Asia, East Asia, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, China and Southeast Asia. By extracting DNA from a saliva sample which is processed on a genotyping chip, the variants in your genome can be read and analyzed in order for a personalized report to be compiled from the results. This service analyses autosomal DNA and also provides maternal and paternal haplogroup maps. Additionally, 23andMe includes a family finder feature called DNA Relatives, which identifies any relatives of a user who has also taken a DNA test with the platform.

23andMe are also taking additional steps via its Global Genetics Project, offering testing kits to people with four grandparents from specific Asian countries including Indonesia, Thailand and Uzbekistan. In doing so, they aim to improve their ability to provide detailed results for customers with non-European ancestry.

AncestryDNA

With more than 10 million people in their database — said to be the largest DNA pool of all testing kits — AncestryDNA covers areas such as West Asia, Syrian-Lebanese, Philippines, Asia East, Central and South, and Caucasus. The service uses SNP testing to study the whole genome at over 700,000 locations, and claims to be able to map ethnicities going back multiple generations, as well as help identify relationships with unknown relatives through a dynamic list of DNA matches.

This is also a good option for anyone hoping to track down a relative as AncestryDNA has the biggest database, giving users the option to reach out and connect if another family member is found on the platform. However, people of East Asian descent could be disappointed by the small genealogical pool for that region.

MyHeritage

MyHeritage also uses microarray-based autosomal DNA testing and can show ancestry origins from among 42 ethnicities, including those within the Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Indonesian, Filipino, Malaysian, Eskimo/Inuit, and Mongolian regions, among others. If you wish, you can choose to upload raw data from any other genealogy tests you’ve completed in the past, without submitting a new DNA sample.

Another bonus is that, like AncestryDNA, MyHeritage can use your results to find any relatives who have also completed a DNA test, simply by identifying shared genetic sequences that suggest a familial relationship. MyHeritage also welcomes DNA results from other major testing providers in order to widen the pool and make it possible for you discover more relatives.

Unfortunately, the size of its database is relatively small compared to other companies.

What are the limitations of an Asian ancestry DNA test?

Genetics is a relatively new science and has generally been more widely used in the West than the East. As a result, more DNA tests have been completed in Europe than in Asia — despite the fact that Asians make up approximately 40% of the world’s population. This means that many popular ancestry DNA testing companies typically provide the most accurate results for Anglo-Saxon and European lineages, but don’t have enough Asian DNA signatures in their databanks to precisely estimate regional percentages. This is particularly relevant when it comes to isolated Asian territories, as a lack of genetic signatures from these regions inevitably means the final report may not be as specific as you’d like.

Having said that, it is possible to overcome the limitations of Asian ancestry DNA testing if more people take the tests and thereby increase the number of Asian genetic signatures in the databases. This would create more data for future clients to be compared to and results should start to become even more accurate as a result.

Wes Hagood

May 12, 2019

What are the best Chinese DNA testing companies and how large are their databases?

Kyung Sula

May 23, 2019

I am 75 year old woman and came from Seoul, South Korea when i was 19 years old in 1964. I have gotten married to a Czech and have three children and 6 grandchildren. They would like to know my ancestry but i am reluctant to take the DNA test due to the lack of Asian data base. If I take the DNA test now, would i get updated reports as the Asian data grows in future?

To Kyung Sula

June 9, 2019

Yes, it automatically updates as they get more samples from various genetic groups. It will update when necessary.

Jamie French

June 21, 2019

Hi,
I just got back results from 23andme that tell me I am approx 13% Japanese and Korean, with the lions share of that being Japanese. This has been a big surprise as I have always understood myself to be 100% European…English, Huguenot, Dutch and Polish. I am a blond blue-eyed woman. I can’t find any documentary evidence that I had a Japanese ancestor…I’ve ordered the AncestryDNA kit now. It seems unlikely to me that 23andme could have gotten something so wrong as the other 86% seems accurate (down to the tiny bit of Native American we had always heard existed. Any idea how I can go about investigating further? Thanks

Andrew Sexton

July 11, 2019

Jamie French, 13% is very close to 12.5% which would be how much DNA you get from each great grandparent. Genealogy research and shared DNA matches could clear some things up for you.

Debbie T

July 15, 2019

My daughter was born in China, as were several of her cousins. There are significant differences between them, like skin color, bone structure, etc. They were each born in different parts of China. Does being ethnically Chinese necessarily mean a DNA tests would simply reveal they are Chinese or might there be more more to reveal?
My daughter is curious to have her DNA tested.

Robin S

July 18, 2019

My daughter was also adopted into our family from China. What is the best DNA test for her to use? There are 56 ethnic groups in China – can DNA testing identify her ethnicity to this level? Finally, do you know if there are there any DNA data banks in China for birth families searching for adopted children? If so, which ones are reputable?

karin

August 9, 2019

I’ve been tested several times for microbiome dna for medical reasons and the results surprisingly points to Japanese ancestary. After researching I found that Japanese were brought to a specific regions , portugal & morroco.
Non microbiom DNA companies are giving results such as 99.9% (!!) of what ever origin. They can’t be specific because they base their research on narrow database such as the GENOMAD and SWEGEN.

Thomas B

May 11, 2020

My daughter was adopted and is curious about her background, whether Chinese or Mongolian. What would be the best test for her to take?

Thomas B

May 12, 2020

My daughter was adopted and is curious about her background, whether Chinese or Mongolian. What would be the best test for her to take?

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